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Infosys Ltd.
Market Cap. (Rs.) 305262.60 Cr. P/BV 4.70 Book Value (Rs.) 148.63
52 Week High/Low (Rs.) 755/458 FV/ML 5/1 P/E(X) 19.04
Bookclosure 05/09/2018 EPS (Rs.) 36.69 Div Yield (%) 6.22
NOTES TO ACCOUNTS
You can view the entire text of Notes to accounts of the company for the latest year
Year End :2018-03 

Fair value hierarchy

Level 1 - Quoted prices (unadjusted) in active markets for identical assets or liabilities.

Level 2 - Inputs other than quoted prices included within Level 1 that are observable for the asset or liability, either directly (i.e. as prices) or indirectly (i.e. derived from prices).

A one percentage point change in the unobservable inputs used in fair valuation of Level 3 assets and liabilities does not have a significant impact in its value.

The movement in contingent consideration as at March 31, 2018 from March 31, 2017 is mainly on account of settlement of Rs, 45 crore pertaining to Kallidus acquisition and addition of Rs, 17 crore in relation to acquisition of Brilliant Basics Holdings Limited (Refer to Note 2.2).

Financial risk management

Financial risk factors : The Company’s activities expose it to a variety of financial risks : market risk, credit risk and liquidity risk. The Company’s primary focus is to foresee the unpredictability of financial markets and seek to minimize potential adverse effects on its financial performance. The primary market risk to the Company is foreign exchange risk. The Company uses derivative financial instruments to mitigate foreign exchange related risk exposures. The Sensitivity analysis is computed based on the changes in the income and expenses in foreign currency upon conversion into functional currency, due to exchange rate fluctuations between the previous reporting period and the current reporting period.

Derivative financial instruments

The Company holds derivative financial instruments such as foreign currency forward and options contracts to mitigate the risk of changes in exchange rates on foreign currency

Company’s exposure to credit risk is influenced mainly by the individual characteristic of each customer and the concentration of risk from the top few customers.

Market risk : The Company operates internationally and a major portion of the business is transacted in several currencies and consequently, the Company is exposed to foreign exchange risk through its sales and services in the United States and elsewhere, and purchases from overseas suppliers in various foreign currencies. The Company holds derivative financial instruments such as foreign exchange forward and options contracts to mitigate the risk of changes in exchange rates on foreign currency exposures. The exchange rate between the Indian rupee and foreign currencies has changed substantially in recent years and may fluctuate substantially in the future. Consequently, the results of the Company’s operations are adversely affected as the rupee appreciates/ depreciates against these currencies.

exposures. The counterparty for these contracts is generally a bank. These derivative financial instruments are valued based on quoted prices for similar assets and liabilities in active markets or inputs that are directly or indirectly observable in the marketplace.

The foreign exchange forward and options contracts mature within 12 months. The table below analyzes the derivative financial instruments into relevant maturity groupings based on the remaining period as at the Balance Sheet date : assessments to ensure that an economic relationship exists between the hedged item and hedging instrument, including whether the hedging instrument is expected to offset changes in cash flows of hedged items.

If the hedge ratio for risk management purposes is no longer optimal but the risk management objective remains unchanged and the hedge continues to qualify for hedge accounting, the hedge relationship will be rebalanced by adjusting either the volume of the hedging instrument or the volume of the hedged item so that the hedge ratio aligns with the ratio used for risk management purposes. Any hedge ineffectiveness is calculated and accounted for in the Statement of Profit or Loss at the time of the hedge relationship rebalancing.

During the years ended March 31, 2018 and March 31, 2017, the Company has designated certain foreign exchange forward and options contracts as cash flow hedges to mitigate the risk of foreign exchange exposure on highly probable forecast cash transactions. The related hedge transactions for balance in cash flow hedging reserve as at March 31, 2018 are expected to occur and reclassified to the Statement of Profit or Loss within three months.

Hedge effectiveness is determined at the inception of the hedge relationship, and through periodic prospective effectiveness

Credit risk

The Company offsets a financial asset and a financial liability when it currently has a legally enforceable right to set off the recognized amounts and the Company intends either to settle on a net basis, or to realize the asset and settle the liability simultaneously

Credit risk refers to the risk of default on its obligation by the counterparty resulting in a financial loss. The maximum exposure to the credit risk at the reporting date is primarily from trade receivables amounting to Rs, 12,151 crore and Rs, 10,960 crore as at March 31, 2018 and March 31, 2017, respectively and unbilled revenues amounting to Rs, 3,573 crore and Rs, 3,200 crore as at March 31, 2018 and March 31,

2017, respectively. Trade receivables and unbilled revenues are typically unsecured and are derived from revenue earned from customers primarily located in the United States. Credit risk has always been managed by the Company through credit approvals, establishing credit limits and continuously monitoring the creditworthiness of customers to which the Company grants credit terms in the normal course of business. The Company uses expected credit loss model to assess the impairment loss or gain. The Company uses a provision matrix to compute the expected credit loss allowance for trade receivables and unbilled revenues. The provision matrix takes into account available external and internal credit risk factors such as credit default swap quotes, credit ratings from international credit rating agencies and the Company’s historical experience for customers.

Credit risk exposure

The allowance for lifetime expected credit loss on customer balances for the years ended March 31, 2018 and March 31,2017 was Rs, 18 crore and Rs, 135 crore respectively

Credit risk on cash and cash equivalents is limited as we generally invest in deposits with banks and financial institutions with high credit ratings assigned by international and domestic credit rating agencies. Investments primarily include investment in liquid mutual fund units, fixed maturity plan securities, quoted bonds issued by government and quasi-government organizations, non-convertible debentures issued by government-aided institutions, certificates of deposit and commercial paper.

Liquidity risk

The Company’s principal sources of liquidity are cash and cash equivalents and the cash flow that is generated from operations. The Company has no outstanding borrowings. The Company believes that the working capital is sufficient to meet its current requirements.

As at March 31, 2018, the Company had a working capital of Rs, 30,903 crore including cash and cash equivalents of Rs, 16,770 crore and current investments of Rs, 5,906 crore. As at March 31, 2017, the Company had a working capital of Rs, 35,896 crore including cash and cash equivalents of Rs, 19,153 crore and current investments of Rs, 9,643 crore.

As at March 31, 2018 and March 31, 2017, the outstanding compensated absences were Rs, 1,260 crore and Rs, 1,142 crore, respectively, which have been substantially funded. Accordingly, no liquidity risk is perceived.

The Company has only one class of shares referred to as equity shares having a par value of Rs, 5. Each holder of equity shares is entitled to one vote per share. The equity shares represented by ADSs carry similar rights to voting and dividends as the other equity shares. Each ADS represents one underlying equity share In the period of five years immediately preceding March 31, 2018 :

- The Company has allotted 114,84,72,332 and 57,42,36,166 fully paid-up shares of face value Rs, 5 each during the quarter ended June 30, 2015 and December 31, 2014, pursuant to bonus issue approved by the shareholders through postal ballot. For both the bonus issues, bonus share of one equity share for every equity share held, and a stock dividend of one ADS for every ADS held, respectively, has been allotted. Consequently, the ratio of equity shares underlying the ADSs held by an American Depositary Receipt (ADR) holder remains unchanged. Options granted under the restricted stock unit plan (RSU) have been adjusted for bonus shares.

In the event of liquidation of the Company, the holders of equity shares will be entitled to receive any of the remaining assets of the Company in proportion to the number of equity shares held by the shareholders, after distribution of all preferential amounts. However, no such preferential amounts exist currently.

Dividends

Final dividends on shares are recorded as a liability on the date of approval by the shareholders and interim dividends are recorded as a liability on the date of declaration by the Company’s Board of Directors.

The Company declares and pays dividends in Indian rupees. The remittance of dividends outside India is governed by Indian law on foreign exchange and is subject to applicable distribution taxes. Dividend distribution tax paid by subsidiaries may be reduced / available as a credit against dividend distribution tax payable by Infosys Limited.

Effective from fiscal 2018, the Company’s policy is to payout up to 70% of the free cash flow of the corresponding financial year in such manner (including by way of dividend and / or share buyback) as may be decided by the Board from time to time, subject to applicable laws and requisite approvals, if any. Free cash flow is defined as net cash provided by operating activities less capital expenditure as per the consolidated Statement of Cash Flows prepared under International Financial Reporting Standards. Dividend payout includes dividend distribution tax.

The Board of Directors recommended a final dividend of Rs, 20.50 per equity share for the financial year ended March 31, 2018 and a special dividend of Rs, 10 per equity share. The payment is subject to the approval of the shareholders in the ensuing Annual General Meeting of the Company, to be held on June 23, 2018 and if approved would result in a cash outflow of approximately Rs, 7,982 crore, including dividend distribution tax.

The Board of Directors, at its meeting on October 24, 2017, declared an interim dividend of Rs, 13 per equity share, which resulted in a cash outflow of Rs, 3,422 crore, inclusive of dividend distribution tax.

During the year ended March 31, 2018, the Company received Rs, 846 crore as dividend from Infosys BPM, its majority owned subsidiary. Dividend distribution tax paid by the subsidiary on such dividend has been reduced as credit against dividend distribution tax payable by Infosys.

Buyback

The Board, at its meeting on August 19, 2017, approved a proposal for the Company to buy back its fully paid-up equity shares of face value of Rs, 5 each from the eligible equity shareholders of the Company for an amount not exceeding Rs, 13,000 crore. The shareholders approved the

Employee Stock Option Plan (ESOP) Accounting Policy

The Company recognizes compensation expense relating to share-based payments in net profit using fair-value in accordance with Ind AS 102, Share-based Payments. The estimated fair value of awards is charged to income on a straight-line basis over the requisite service period for each separately vesting portion of the award as if the award was in substance, multiple awards with a corresponding increase to share options outstanding account.

said proposal of buyback of equity shares through the postal ballot that concluded on October 7, 2017. The buyback offer comprised a purchase of 11,30,43,478 equity shares aggregating 4.92% of the paid-up equity share capital of the Company at a price of ' 1,150 per equity share. The buyback was offered to all eligible equity shareholders (including those who became equity shareholders as on the Record date by cancelling ADSs and withdrawing underlying Equity shares) of the Company as on the record date (i.e November 1, 2017) on a proportionate basis through the ‘Tender offer’ route. The Company concluded the buyback procedures on December 27, 2017 and 11,30,43,478 equity shares were extinguished. The Company has utilized its securities premium and general reserve for the buyback of its shares. In accordance with Section 69 of the Companies Act, 2013, the Company has created a Capital Redemption Reserve of ' 56 crore equal to the nominal value of the shares bought back as an appropriation from the general reserve.

The Company’s objective when managing capital is to safeguard its ability to continue as a going concern and to maintain an optimal capital structure so as to maximize shareholder value. In order to maintain or achieve an optimal capital structure, the Company may adjust the amount of dividend payment, return capital to shareholders, issue new shares or buy back issued shares. As of March 31, 2018, the Company has only one class of equity shares and has no debt. Consequent to the above capital structure, there are no externally imposed capital requirements.

Amendment to Ind AS 102

Effective April 1, 2017, the Company adopted the amendment to Ind AS 102 which provides specific guidance to measurement of cash-settled awards, modification of cash-settled awards and awards that include a net settlement feature in respect of withholding taxes. The adoption of amendment did not have any material effect on the financial statements.

2015 Stock Incentive Compensation Plan (the 2015 Plan) (formerly 2011 RSU Plan): On March 31, 2016, pursuant to the approval by the shareholders through a postal ballot, the Board has been authorized to introduce, offer, issue and allot share-based incentives to eligible employees of the Company and its subsidiaries under the 2015 Stock Incentive Compensation Plan (the 2015 Plan). The maximum number of shares under the 2015 Plan shall not exceed 2,40,38,883 equity shares (this includes 1,12,23,576 equity shares which are held by the trust towards the 2011 Plan as at March 31, 2016). Out of this, 1,70,38,883 equity shares will be issued as RSUs at par value and 70,00,000 equity shares will be issued as stock options at market price on the date of the grant. These instruments will generally vest over a period of four years and the Company expects to grant the instruments under the 2015 Plan over the period of 4 to 7 years.

Controlled trust holds 1,08,01,956 and 1,12,89,514 shares as at March 31, 2018 and March 31, 2017, respectively under the 2015 Plan, out of which 1,00,000 equity shares have been earmarked for welfare activities of the employees.

Stock incentives granted to Salil Parekh (CEO & MD) : Pursuant to the approval of the shareholders through a postal ballot on February 20, 2018, Salil Parekh (CEO & MD) is eligible to receive under the 2015 Plan,

a. an annual grant of RSUs of fair value Rs, 3.25 crore which will vest over time in three equal annual installments upon completion of each year of service from the respective grant date

b. a one-time grant of RSUs of fair value Rs, 9.75 crore which will vest over time in two equal annual installments upon completion of each year of service from the grant date and

c. an annual grant of performance-based RSUs of fair value Rs, 13 crore which will vest after completion of three years the first of which concludes on March 31, 2021, subject to achievement of performance targets set by the Board or its committee.

The Board, based on the recommendations of the nomination and remuneration committee, approved on February 27,

2018, the annual time-based grant for fiscal 2018 of 28,256 RSUs and the one-time time-based grant of 84,768 RSUs. The grants were made effective February 27, 2018. Though the annual time-based grants for the remaining employment term have not been granted as of March 31, 2018 , in accordance with Ind AS 102, Share-based Payments, the Company has recorded employment stock compensation expense.

Stock incentives granted to Dr. Vishal Sikka: Consequent to Dr. Vishal Sikkas resignation from the Company on August 24, 2017, the unvested stock incentives (time-based and performance-based awards) granted to him were forfeited. Stock incentives granted to COO : The Nomination and Remuneration Committee (‘the Committee’), at its meeting held on October 14, 2016 recommended a grant of 27,250 RSUs and 43,000 ESOPs amounting to Rs, 4 crore to U.B. Pravin Rao, under the 2015 Plan and the same was approved by the shareholders through a postal ballot on March 31,

2017. These RSUs and ESOPs have been granted effective May 2, 2017. These RSUs and stock options would vest over a period of four years and shall be exercisable within the period as approved by the Committee. The exercise price of the RSUs will be equal to the par value of the shares and the exercise price of the stock options would be the market price as on the date of grant, as approved by the shareholders.

Stock incentives granted to KMP (other than CEO, Dr. Vishal Sikka, and COO) : On November 1, 2016, 2,47,250 RSUs and 5,02,550 stock options were granted under the 2015 Plan, to key managerial personnel (KMP), excluding Dr. Vishal Sikka and the COO, based on fiscal 2016 performance. On August 1, 2017, 58,150 RSUs and 44,450 ESOPs were granted to KMP These RSUs and stock options will generally vest over a period of four years and shall be exercisable within the period as approved by the Committee. The exercise price of the RSUs will be equal to the par value of the shares and the exercise price of the stock options would be the market price as on the date of grant. On February 27, 2018, based on the recommendation and approval of the nomination and remuneration committee, the Company granted 2,14,950 RSUs to KMP other than CEO and COO. These instruments will vest over a period of four years and are subject to continued service.

During the year ended March 31, 2018, three of the KMP have resigned (Refer to Note 2.23, Related party transactions for further details) and hence the RSUs and stock options granted to them were forfeited.

Stock incentive granted to employees other than KMP : During fiscal 2017, the Company granted 25,06,740 RSUs and 7,03,300 ESOPs and 1,12,210 incentive units (cash-settled) to certain eligible employees at mid and senior levels under the 2015 Plan. Further, on May 2, 2017, the Company granted 37,090 RSUs (includes equity shares and equity shares represented by ADSs) at par value, 73,600 ESOPs (including equity shares and equity shares represented by ADSs) to be exercised at market price at the time of grant, to certain employees at the senior management level. On August 1, 2017, 7,450 incentive units (cash-settled) were granted to employees at the senior management level. These instruments will vest over a period of four years and are subject to continued service. On February 27, 2018 15,59,920 RSUs and 42,590 incentive units (cash-settled) were granted to eligible employees. These instruments will vest over a period of four years and are subject to continued service.

As at March 31, 2018 and March 31, 2017, 1,11,757 and 1,06,845 incentive units were outstanding (net of forfeitures).

(1) Cash-settled stock compensation expense included Rs, 1 crore each in the years ended March 31, 2018 and March 31, 2017.

(2) Includes a reversal of stock compensation cost of Rs, 35 crore towards forfeiture of stock incentives granted to Dr. Vishal Sikka upon his resignation.

The carrying value of liability towards cash-settled, share-based payments was Rs, 6 crore and Rs, 3 crore as at March 31, 2018 and March 31, 2017, respectively.

contracts. Costs associated with such support services are accrued at the time related revenues are recorded in the Statement of Profit and Loss. The Company estimates such costs based on historical experience and estimates are reviewed on a periodic basis for any material changes in assumptions and likelihood of occurrence.

b. Onerous contracts : Provisions for onerous contracts are recognized when the expected benefits to be derived by the Company from a contract are lower than the unavoidable costs of meeting the future obligations under the contract. The provision is measured at the present value of the lower of the expected cost of terminating the contract and the expected net cost of continuing with the contract. Before a provision is established, the Company recognizes any impairment loss on the assets associated with that contract.

Provision for post-sales client support and other provisions are expected to be utilized over a period of six months to one year.

2.15 Income taxes Accounting policy

Income tax expense comprises current and deferred income tax. Income tax expense is recognized in net profit in the Statement of Profit and Loss except to the extent that it relates to items recognized directly in equity, in which case it is recognized in other comprehensive income. Current income tax for current and prior periods is recognized at the amount expected to be paid to or recovered from the tax authorities, using the tax rates and tax laws that have been enacted or substantively enacted by the Balance Sheet date. Deferred income tax assets and liabilities are recognized for all temporary differences arising between the tax bases of assets and liabilities and their carrying amounts in the financial statements. Deferred tax assets are reviewed at each reporting date and are reduced to the extent that it is no longer probable that the related tax benefit will be realized.

Deferred income tax assets and liabilities are measured using tax rates and tax laws that have been enacted or substantively enacted by the Balance Sheet date and are expected to apply to taxable income in the years in which those temporary differences are expected to be recovered or settled. The effect of changes in tax rates on deferred income tax assets and liabilities is recognized as income or expense in the period that includes the enactment or the substantive enactment date. A deferred income tax asset is recognized to the extent that it is probable that future taxable profit will be available against which the deductible temporary differences and tax losses can be utilized. Deferred income taxes are not provided on the undistributed earnings of subsidiaries and branches where it is expected that the earnings of the subsidiary or branch will not be distributed in the foreseeable future. The Company offsets current tax assets and current tax liabilities, where it has a legally enforceable right to set off the recognized amounts and where it intends either to settle on a net basis, or to realize the asset and settle the liability simultaneously. Tax benefits of deductions earned on exercise of employee share options in excess of compensation charged to income are credited to securities premium.

Income tax expense in the Statement of Profit and Loss comprises :

Advance Pricing Agreement (APA) : During the three months ended December 31, 2017, the Company had concluded an APA with the US Internal Revenue Service (IRS) for the US branch covering the years ending March 2011 to March 2021. Under the APA, the Company and the IRS have agreed on the methodology to allocate revenues and compute the taxable income of the Company’s US branch operations.

During the three months ended December 31, 2017, in accordance with the APA, the Company has reversed income tax expense provision of Rs, 1,432 crore which pertains to previous periods. This comprises reversal of current tax expense of Rs, 1,610 crore, reversal of Rs, 132 crore on account of deferred tax assets pertaining to the temporary differences which are no longer required and a deferred tax liability of Rs, 46 crore pertaining to Branch profit tax for the three months ended December 31, 2017 on account of conclusion of APA. In line with the APA, the Company has to pay an amount of approximately Rs, 1,488 crore due to the difference between the taxes payable for prior periods as per the APA and the actual taxes paid for such periods. The Company has paid Rs, 479 crore during the three months ended March 31, 2018, and the balance amount is expected to be paid over the next few quarters.

Additionally, the income tax expense for the years ended March 31, 2018 and March 31, 2017 includes reversal (net of provisions) of Rs, 240 crore and Rs, 218 crore, respectively. pertaining to prior periods on account of adjudication of certain disputed matters in favor of the Company across various jurisdictions.

The ‘Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (H.R. 1)’ was signed into law on December 22, 2017 (‘US Tax Reforms’). The US tax reforms has reduced federal tax rates from 35% to 21% effective January 1, 2018, among other measures. During the year ended March 31, 2018, the US tax reforms has resulted in a positive impact of Rs, 155 crore on account of credits pertaining to deferred tax liabilities on branch profit. The impact of US tax reforms is expected to be not significant for future periods.

During the years ended March 31, 2018 and March 31,

2017, a current tax charge of Rs, 16 crore and current tax credit of Rs, 8 crore, respectively, have been recorded in other comprehensive income pertaining to remeasurement of defined benefit plan asset.

Infosys is subject to a 15% Branch Profit Tax (BPT) in the US to the extent its US branch’s net profit during the year is greater than the increase in the net assets of the US branch during the year, computed in accordance with the Internal Revenue Code. As at March 31, 2018, Infosys’ US branch net assets amounted to approximately Rs, 5,030 crore. During the year ended March 31, 2018, an additional deferred tax liability has been created for BPT amounting to Rs, 46 crore on account of conclusion of APA explained above. Further, on account of US tax Reforms, the Company has a credit of Rs, 155 crore pertaining to BPT for the year ended March 31, 2018. The Company has also reversed Rs, 55 crore of BPT during the year ended March 31, 2018. As of March 31, 2018, the Company has a deferred tax liability for BPT of Rs, 164 crore (net of credits), as the Company estimates that these branch profits are expected to be distributed in the foreseeable future. Other income for the year ended March 31, 2018 includes interest on income tax refund of Rs,257 crore.

The foreign tax expense is due to income taxes payable overseas, principally in the United States. In India, the Company has benefited from certain income tax incentives that the Government of India had provided for export of software from the units registered under the Special Economic Zones Act (SEZs), 2005. SEZ units which began the provision of services on or after April 1, 2005 are eligible for a deduction of 100% of profits or gains derived from the export of services for the first five years from the financial year in which the unit commenced the provision of services and 50% of such profits or gains for further five years. Up to 50% of such profits or gains is also available for a further five years subject to creation of a Special Economic Zone Re-investment Reserve out of the profit for the eligible SEZ units and utilization of such reserve by the Company for acquiring new plant and machinery for the purpose of its business as per the provisions of the Income tax Act, 1961. Deferred income tax liabilities have not been recognized on temporary differences amounting to Rs, 5,045 crore and Rs, 5,309 crore as at March 31, 2018 and March 31, 2017, respectively, associated with investments in subsidiaries and branches as it is probable that the temporary differences will not reverse in the foreseeable future.

Deferred tax assets and deferred tax liabilities have been offset wherever the Company has a legally enforceable right to set off current tax assets against current tax liabilities and where the deferred tax assets and deferred tax liabilities relate to income taxes levied by the same taxation authority

In assessing the reliability of deferred income tax assets, the Management considers whether some portion or all of the deferred income tax assets will not be realized. The ultimate realization of deferred income tax assets is dependent upon the generation of future taxable income during the periods in which the temporary differences become deductible. The Management considers the scheduled reversals of deferred income tax liabilities, projected future taxable income, and tax planning strategies in making this assessment. Based on the level of historical taxable income and projections for future taxable income over the periods in which the deferred income tax assets are deductible, the Management believes that the Company will realize the benefits of those deductible differences. The amount of the deferred income tax assets considered realizable, however, could be reduced in the near term if estimates of future taxable income during the carry forward period are reduced.

The entire deferred income tax, except for a credit of Rs, 155 crore (on account of US tax reforms explained above), for the year ended March 31, 2018, relates to origination and reversal of temporary differences

The credit relating to temporary differences during the year ended March 31, 2018 is primarily on account of property. plant and equipment and trade receivables partially offset by decrease in compensated absences and accrued compensation to employees. The charge relating to temporary differences during the year ended March 31, 2017 is primarily on account of property, plant and equipment, accrued compensation and compensated absences partially offset by trade receivables.

2.16 Revenue from operations Accounting policy

The Company derives revenues primarily from software development and related services and from the licensing of software products. Arrangements with customers for software-related services are mainly either on a fixed-price, fixed-timeframe or on a time-and-material basis.

Revenue on time-and-material contracts are recognized as the related services are performed and revenue from the end of the last billing to the Balance Sheet date is recognized as unbilled revenues. Revenue from fixed-price, fixed-timeframe contracts, where there is no uncertainty as to measurement or collectability of consideration, is recognized as per the percentage-of-completion method. When there is uncertainty as to measurement or ultimate collectability, revenue recognition is postponed until such uncertainty is resolved. Efforts or costs expended have been used to measure progress towards completion as there is a direct relationship between input and productivity. Provisions for estimated losses, if any, on uncompleted contracts are recorded in the period in which such losses become probable based on the current contract estimates. Costs and earnings in excess of billings are classified as unbilled revenues while billings in excess of costs and earnings are classified as unearned revenues. Deferred contract costs are amortized over the term of the contract. Maintenance revenue is recognized rateably over the term of the underlying maintenance arrangement.

In arrangements for software development and related services and maintenance services, the Company has applied the guidance in Ind AS 18, Revenue, by applying the revenue recognition criteria for each separately identifiable component of a single transaction. The arrangements generally meet the criteria for considering software development and related services as separately identifiable components. For allocating the consideration, the Company has measured the revenue in respect of each separable component of a transaction at its fair value, in accordance with principles given in Ind AS 18. The price that is regularly charged for an item when sold separately is the best evidence of its fair value. In cases where the Company is unable to establish objective and reliable evidence of fair value for the software development and related services, the Company has used a residual method to allocate the arrangement consideration. In these cases, the balance of the consideration, after allocating the fair values of undelivered components of a transaction, has been allocated to the delivered components for which specific fair values do not exist.

License fee revenues are recognized when the general revenue recognition criteria given in Ind AS 18 are met. Arrangements to deliver software products generally have three elements : license, implementation and Annual Technical Services (ATS). The Company has applied the principles given in Ind AS 18 to account for revenues from these multiple element arrangements. Objective and reliable evidence of fair value has been established for ATS. Objective and reliable evidence of fair value is the price charged when the element is sold separately. When other services are provided in conjunction with the licensing arrangement and objective and reliable evidence of their fair values have been established, the revenue from such contracts are allocated to each component of the contract in a manner, whereby revenue is deferred for the undelivered services and the residual amounts are recognized as revenue for delivered elements. In the absence of objective and reliable evidence of fair value for implementation, the entire arrangement fee for license and implementation is recognized using the percentage-of-completion method as the implementation is performed. Revenue from client training, support and other services arising due to the sale of software products is recognized as the services are performed. ATS revenue is recognized rateably over the period in which the services are rendered.

Advances received for services and products are reported as client deposits until all conditions for revenue recognition are met.

The Company accounts for volume discounts and pricing incentives to customers as a reduction of revenue based on the rateable allocation of the discounts / incentives amount to each of the underlying revenue transaction that results in progress by the customer towards earning the discount / incentive. Also, when the level of discount varies with increases in levels of revenue transactions, the Company recognizes the liability based on its estimate of the customer’s future purchases. If it is probable that the criteria for the discount will not be met, or if the amount thereof cannot be estimated reliably, then discount is not recognized until the payment is probable and the amount can be estimated reliably. The Company recognizes changes in the estimated amount of obligations for discounts in the period in which the change occurs. The discounts are passed on to the customer either as direct payments or as a reduction of payments due from the customer.

The Company presents revenues net of indirect taxes in its Statement of Profit and Loss.

2.17 Other income, net Accounting policy

2.17.1 Other income

Other income is comprised primarily of interest income, dividend income, gain / loss on investments and exchange gain / loss on forward and options contracts and on translation of other assets and liabilities. Interest income is recognized using the effective interest method. Dividend income is recognized when the right to receive payment is established.

2.17.2 Foreign currency

Functional currency

The functional currency of the Company is the Indian rupee. These financial statements are presented in Indian rupees (rounded off to crore; one crore equals ten million).

Transactions and translations

Foreign-currency denominated monetary assets and liabilities are translated into the relevant functional currency at exchange rates in effect at the Balance Sheet date. The gains or losses resulting from such translations are included in net profit in the Statement of Profit and Loss. Non-monetary assets and non-monetary liabilities denominated in a foreign currency and measured at fair value are translated at the exchange rate prevalent at the date when the fair value was determined. Non-monetary assets and non-monetary liabilities denominated in a foreign currency and measured at historical cost are translated at the exchange rate prevalent at the date of the transaction.

Transaction gains or losses realized upon settlement of foreign currency transactions are included in determining net profit for the period in which the transaction is settled. Revenue, expense and cash flow items denominated in foreign currencies are translated into the relevant functional currencies using the exchange rate in effect on the date of the transaction.

2.19 Leases Accounting policy

Leases under which the Company assumes substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership are classified as finance leases. When acquired, such assets are capitalized at fair value or present value of the minimum lease payments at the inception of the lease, whichever is lower. Lease payments under operating leases are recognized as an expense on a straight line basis in net profit in the Statement of Profit and Loss over the lease term.

The operating lease arrangements, are renewable on a periodic basis and for most of the leases extend upto a maximum of

10 years from their respective dates of inception and relates to rented premises. Some of these lease agreements have price escalation clauses.

2.20 Employee benefits Accounting policy

2.20.1 Gratuity

The Company provides for gratuity, a defined benefit retirement plan (‘the Gratuity Plan’) covering eligible employees. The Gratuity Plan provides a lump-sum payment to vested employees at retirement, death, incapacitation or termination of employment, of an amount based on the respective employee’s salary and the tenure of employment with the Company.

Liabilities with regard to the Gratuity Plan are determined by actuarial valuation, performed by an independent actuary, at each Balance Sheet date using the projected unit credit method. The Company fully contributes all ascertained liabilities to the Infosys Limited Employees’ Gratuity Fund Trust (the Trust). Trustees administer contributions made to the Trust and contributions are invested in a scheme with the Life Insurance Corporation of India as permitted by Indian law. The Company recognizes the net obligation of a defined benefit plan in its Balance Sheet as an asset or liability. Gains and losses through re-measurements of the net defined benefit liability / (asset) are recognized in other comprehensive income and are not reclassified to profit or loss in subsequent periods. The actual return of the portfolio of plan assets, in excess of the yields computed by applying the discount rate used to measure the defined benefit obligation is recognized in other comprehensive income. The effect of any plan amendments are recognized in net profit in the Statement of Profit and Loss.

2.20.2 Superannuation

Certain employees of Infosys are participants in a defined contribution plan. The Company has no further obligations to the plan beyond its monthly contributions which are periodically contributed to a trust fund, the corpus of which is invested with the Life Insurance Corporation of India.

2.20.3 Provident fund

Eligible employees of Infosys receive benefits from a provident fund, which is a defined benefit plan. Both the eligible employee and the Company make monthly contributions to the provident fund plan equal to a specified percentage of the covered employee’s salary. The Company contributes a portion to the Infosys Limited Employees’ Provident Fund Trust. The trust invests in specific designated instruments as permitted by Indian law. The remaining portion is contributed to the government-administered pension fund. The rate at which the annual interest is payable to the beneficiaries by the trust is being administered by the government. The Company has an obligation to make good the shortfall, if any, between the return from the investments of the Trust and the notified interest rate.

2.20.4 Compensated absences

The Company has a policy on compensated absences which are both accumulating and non-accumulating in nature. The expected cost of accumulating compensated absences is determined by actuarial valuation performed by an independent actuary at each Balance Sheet date using projected unit credit method on the additional amount expected to be paid/availed as a result of the unused entitlement that has accumulated at the Balance Sheet date. Expense on no accumulating compensated absences is recognized in the period in which the absences occur.

Sensitivity for significant actuarial assumptions is computed by varying one actuarial assumption used for the valuation of the defined benefit obligation by one percentage, keeping all other actuarial assumptions constant. In practice, this is not probable, and changes in some of the assumptions may be correlated.

Gratuity is applicable only to employees drawing a salary in Indian rupees and there are no other foreign defined benefit gratuity plans.

The Company contributes all ascertained liabilities towards gratuity to the Infosys Limited Employees’ Gratuity Fund Trust. Trustees administer contributions made to the trust. As at March 31, 2018 and March 31, 2017, the plan assets have been primarily invested in insurer managed funds.

Actual return on assets for each of the years ended March 31, 2018 and March 31, 2017 was Rs, 80 crore.

The Company expects to contribute Rs, 110 crore to the gratuity trusts during the fiscal 2019.

Assumptions regarding future mortality experience are set in accordance with the published statistics by the Life Insurance Corporation of India.

The Company assesses these assumptions with its projected long-term plans of growth and prevalent industry standards. The discount rate is based on the government securities yield.

b. Superannuation

The Company contributed Rs, 158 crore and Rs, 151 crore to the Superannuation trust during the years ended March 31,

2018 and March 31, 2017 respectively and the same has been recognized in the Statement of Profit and Loss account under the employee benefit expense.

c. Provident fund

Infosys has an obligation to fund any shortfall on the yield of the trust’s investments over the administered interest rates on an annual basis. These administered rates are determined annually predominantly considering the social rather than economic factors and in most cases the actual return earned by the Company has been higher in the past years. The actuary has provided a valuation for provident fund liabilities on the basis of guidance issued by Actuarial Society of India and based on the below provided assumptions, there is no shortfall as at March 31, 2018 and March 31, 2017, respectively equity shares that could have been issued upon conversion of all dilutive potential equity shares. The dilutive potential equity shares are adjusted for the proceeds receivable had the equity shares been actually issued at fair value (i.e. the average market value of the outstanding equity shares). Dilutive potential equity shares are deemed converted as at the beginning of the period, unless issued at a later date. Dilutive potential equity shares are determined independently for each period presented.

The number of equity shares and potentially dilutive equity shares are adjusted retrospectively for all periods presented for any share splits and bonus shares issues including for changes effected prior to the approval of the financial statements by the Board of Directors.

The Company contributed Rs, 397 crore and Rs, 378 crore during the years ended March 31, 2018 and March 31, 2017 respectively and the same has been recognized in the Statement of Profit and Loss under the employee benefit expense.

The provident plans are applicable only to employees drawing a salary in Indian rupees and there are no other significant foreign defined benefit plans.

Employee benefits costs include :

For the years ended March 31, 2018 and March 31, 2017 number of options to purchase equity shares that had an anti-dilutive effect are 27,876 and 77,942 respectively

(1) Includes employee stock compensation expense of Rs, 72 crore and Rs, 107 crore for the years ended March 31, 2018 and March 31, 2017, respectively (Refer to Note 2.10).

(2) Included in the above for the year ended March 31, 2018 is a reversal of stock compensation cost of Rs, 35 crore towards forfeiture of stock incentives granted to Dr. Vishal Sikka upon his resignation. (Refer to Note 2.10).

2.21 Reconciliation of basic and diluted shares used in computing earning per share

Accounting policy

Basic earnings per equity share is computed by dividing the net profit attributable to the equity holders of the Company by the weighted average number of equity shares outstanding during the period. Diluted earnings per equity share is computed by dividing the net profit attributable to the equity holders of the Company by the weighted average number of equity shares considered for deriving basic earnings per equity share and also the weighted average number of

(1) As at March 31, 2018, claims against the Company not acknowledged as debts in respect of income tax matters amounted to Rs, 4,461 crore. These matters are pending before various appellate authorities and the

Management including its tax advisors expect that its position will likely be upheld on ultimate resolution and will not have a material adverse effect on the Company’s financial position and results of operations. Income tax claims amounting to Rs, 4,670 crore had not been considered as claims not acknowledged as debt because the Company has received favorable decisions on similar claims and therefore, based on its assessment, is of the view that any liability resulting from these claims is remote and will not sustain on ultimate resolution.

Amount paid to statutory authorities against the above tax claims amounted to Rs, 6,475 crore.

(2) Uncalled capital pertaining to investments

The Company is subject to legal proceedings and claims, which have arisen in the ordinary course of business. The Company’s management does not reasonably expect that these legal actions, when ultimately concluded and determined, will have a material and adverse effect on the Company’s results of operations or financial condition.

(3) Includes a reversal of stock compensation cost of Rs, 35 crore for the year ended March 31, 2018 towards forfeiture of stock incentives granted to Dr. Vishal Sikka upon his resignation. (Refer to Note 2.10)

(4) Includes Rs, 6 crore payable under severance agreement to David Kennedy; General Counsel and Chief Compliance Officer during the year ended March 31, 2017.

2.24 Corporate social responsibility

As per Section 135 of the Companies Act, 2013, a company, meeting the applicability threshold, needs to spend at least 2% of its average net profit for the immediately preceding three financial years on corporate social responsibility (CSR) activities. The areas for CSR activities are eradication of hunger and malnutrition, promoting education, art and culture, healthcare, destitute care and rehabilitation, environment sustainability, disaster relief and rural development projects. A CSR committee has been formed by the Company as per the Act. The funds were primarily allocated to a corpus and utilized through the year on these activities which are specified in Schedule VII of the Companies Act, 2013. a) Gross amount required to be spent by the Company during the year is Rs, 310 crore.

(1) Refer to Note 2.3

(2) Excluding contingent consideration of Rs, 17 crore

(3) Loan outstanding (including accrued interest) given to Infosys Sweden is converted to equity during the year ended March 31, 2017.

(1) On December 2, 2017, the Board appointed Salil Parekh as the Chief Executive Officer and Managing Director of the Company with effect from January 2, 2018. The appointment is for a term of five years with effect from January 2, 2018 to January 1, 2023 and the remuneration is approved by shareholders through a postal ballot dated February 20, 2018.

(2) Total employee stock compensation expense for the year ended March 31, 2018 includes a reversal of Rs, 13 crore towards KMP. Employee stock compensation expense for the year ended March 31, 2017 includes an expense of Rs, 36 crore towards key managerial personnel. (Refer to Note 2.10)

2.25 Segment reporting

Ind AS 108 establishes standards for the way that public business enterprises report information about operating segments and related disclosures about products and services, geographic areas, and major customers. The Company’s operations predominantly relate to providing end-to-end business solutions to enable clients to enhance business performance. Based on the ‘management approach’ as defined in Ind AS 108, the Chief Operating Decision Maker (CODM) evaluates the Company’s performance and allocates resources based on an analysis of various performance indicators by business segments and geographic segments. Accordingly, the information has been presented both along business segments and geographic segments. The accounting principles used in the preparation of the financial statements are consistently applied to record revenue and expenditure in individual segments, and are as set out in the significant accounting policies.

Business segments of the Company are primarily enterprises in Financial Services (FS), enterprises in Manufacturing (MFG), enterprises in Retail, Consumer packaged goods and Logistics (RCL), enterprises in the Energy & utilities, Communication and Services (ECS), enterprises in Hi-tech (Hi-Tech), enterprises in Life Sciences, Healthcare and Insurance (HILIFE) and all other segments. The FS reportable segments has been aggregated to include the Financial Services operating segment and the Finacle operating segment because of the similarity of the economic characteristics. All other segments represents the operating segments of businesses in India, Japan and China. Geographic segmentation is based on business sourced from that geographic region and delivered from both on site and off shore locations. North America comprises the United States of America, Canada and Mexico, Europe includes continental Europe (both the east and the west), Ireland and the United Kingdom, and the Rest of the World comprising all other places except those mentioned above and India.

Revenue and identifiable operating expenses in relation to segments are categorized based on items that are individually identifiable to that segment. Revenue for ‘all other segments’ represents revenue generated from customers located in India, Japan and China. Allocated expenses of segments include expenses incurred for rendering services from the Company’s offshore software development centres and on-site expenses, which are categorized in relation to the associated turnover of the segment. Certain expenses such as depreciation, which form a significant component of total expenses, are not specifically allocable to specific segments as the underlying assets are used interchangeably. The Management believes that it is not practical to provide segment disclosures relating to those costs and expenses, and accordingly these expenses are separately disclosed as ‘unallocated’ and adjusted against the total income of the Company

Assets and liabilities used in the Company’s business are not identified to any of the reportable segments, as these are used interchangeably between segments. The Management believes that it is currently not practicable to provide segment disclosures relating to total assets and liabilities since a meaningful segregation of the available data is onerous. Geographical information on revenue and business segment revenue information is collated based on individual customers invoiced or in relation to which the revenue is otherwise recognized.

Significant clients

No client individually accounted for more than 10% of the revenues in the years ended March 31,

2018 and March 31, 2017.

2.26 Assets held for sale Accounting policy

Non-current assets and disposal groups are classified under held for sale if their carrying amount is intended to be recovered principally through sale rather than through continuing use. The condition for classification of held for sale is met when the non-current asset or the disposal group is available for immediate sale and the same is highly probable of being completed within one year from the date of classification under held for sale. Non-current assets and disposal groups held for sale are measured at the lower of carrying amount and fair value less cost to sell.

In the quarter ended March 2018, on conclusion of a strategic review of the portfolio businesses, the Company initiated identification and evaluation of potential buyers for its subsidiaries, Kallidus and Skava (together referred to as ‘Skava’) and Panaya. The Company anticipates completion of the sale by March 2019 and accordingly, investments amounting to Rs, 1,525 crore in respect of these subsidiaries have been reclassified under ‘assets held for sale’. On reclassification, these investments has been measured at the lower of carrying amount and fair value less cost to sell and consequently, an impairment loss of Rs, 589 crore in respect of Panaya has been recognized in the standalone profit and loss for the year ended March 31, 2018.

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